These people grew rice, ginger, coconuts, sweet potatoes, sugarcane and bananas. Most of their economic activities were fishing, farming, and hunting by the use of bamboo traps and blowguns.
The local people had a dialect consisting of 18 syllables.
After Ferdinand Magellan's death, remnants of his fleet landed in Palawan where the bounty of the land saved them from starvation.
Antonio Pigafetta, Magellan's chronicler named the place "Land of Promise." The northern Calamianes Islands were the first to come under Spanish authority, and were later declared a province separate from the Palawan mainland.
It was later divided into three districts, Calamianes, Paragua and Balabac, with Principe Alfonso town as its capital.
and During the Spanish colonization of the Philippines, Cuyo became the second capital of Palawan from 1873 to 1903.
In 1749, the Sultanate of Brunei ceded southern Palawan to Spain.
During World War II, in order to prevent the rescue of prisoners of war by the advancing allies, on 14 December 1944, units of the Japanese Fourteenth Area Army (under the command of General Tomoyuki Yamashita) herded the remaining 150 prisoners of war at Puerto Princesa into three covered trenches which were then set on fire using barrels of gasoline.
Surviving Buddhist images and sculptures are primarily in and near Tabon Cave.
Because of Palawan's proximity to Borneo, southern portions of the island were under the control of the Sultanate of Brunei for more than two centuries, and Islam was introduced.
Although the origin of the cave dwellers is not yet established, anthropologists believe they came from Borneo.
The Tabon Caves are now known as the Cradle of Philippine Civilization The Palawano and Tagbanwa, are believed to be direct descendants of Palawan's earliest settlers.Only 11 men escaped the slaughter and between 133 and 141 were killed.